XI San-cai 奚三彩
Zhejiang University
浙江大學文化遺產研究院

現代科技在紙質文物保護中的應用研究

Paper as a medium of written information is extremely important for transmitting cultural and preserving history since the invention of papermaking technology 2000 years ago. Those paper relics such as books, paintings, newspapers and documents collected in museums, libraries and archives are extremely precious in studying the history, politics, economy, art and culture of China.

Paper is a kind of organic materials which main structure is cellulose fibers connected by linear β(1-4)D-glucopyranosyl units. With time goes on, both internal factors (effect of acid and change of texture) and external factors (temperature, humidity, illumination, corrosion of acidic gas, damaged by worms, mildew or mechanical wear) affected the quality of paper, leading to paper acidification, embrittlement or even ruined totally. Therefore, the preservation of paper relics is facing a grim situation.

Since de-acidification is the only way to extend the storage time of acidification paper, the scholars of every country devote to the viable means of removing acid since 1930s. At present, aqueous treatments, non-aqueous liquid-based systems treatments and gas-phase treatments are mostly used in the de-acidification and protection of paper relics, books and documents but it is not satisfactory enough. In recent years, Zhejiang University, Guanzhou University of Technology and Nanjing Museum made fast progress in exploring innovative methods for paper de-acidification on the basis of past experience. For instance, cold plasma technology was applied to the de-acidification and protection of paper heritage and documents by Xiwen Zhang, Sancai Xi, etc. form Zhejiang University.

This paper makes a brief introduction to the reason of paper acidification and the developments of de-acidification technology.

自兩千年前造紙技術發明後,紙張一直扮演著記錄歷史、傳遞延續文化的重要角色。收藏在博物館、圖書館、檔案館中的歷代遺存的書、畫、報刊、文獻等紙質文物,是研究中華民族歷史、政治、經濟、藝術、文化的珍貴資料,具有十分重要的歷史文化價值。

紙張屬於有機材料,主要化學成分是纖維素,由纖維素大分子中基團間的葡萄糖鍵連接而成。隨著歲月的流逝,在內在因素 (酸的作用和材質的變化) 與外在因素 (溫度、濕度、光照、酸性氣體侵蝕、蟲蛀、黴變及機械的磨損) 的影響下,導致酸化、發脆甚至粉化,紙張「自毀」正面臨著嚴峻的局面。

對已酸化的紙質文物、書刊、文獻而言,脫酸是延長紙張壽命的唯一途徑。自19世紀30年代以來,各國學者研究了各種脫酸方法,大體可歸納為:水溶液法、有機溶劑法、氣相法。這些方法為紙質文物、書刊、文獻的保護發揮了一定作用,但都不大理想。近幾年浙江大學、廣州工業大學、南京博物院等單位,在紙張脫酸研究方面取得了可喜進展,他們在總結、吸收以往方法基礎上,開展了創新性研究,如:浙江大學張溪文、奚三彩等,從低溫等離子體原理出發,對等離子脫酸技術在紙質文物、書刊保護中的應用進行了研究。

本文僅簡要介紹紙張酸化的原因及脫酸研究的進展。