JIN Jingzhi 金靖之
Shanghai Museum 上海博物館

The Influence of Chinese Arts and Culture on Japanese Edo Period Paintings
中國文化藝術對日本江戶時代繪畫的影響

Even before its entrance into the Edo period (1603-1867), Japan had already been influenced by the Tang and Song dynasties of China; as time went on, such distinct cultural and artistic influences gradually became integrated into Japanese culture. By the start of the Edo period, Japan also began to be influenced by the cultural ideologies of the late Ming and early Qing dynasties. By that point, Japan had been governed by the Tokugawa Shogunate for nearly 300 years, and was seeing rapid development both in terms of societal stability and economic prosperity. During this time, therefore, Japanese paintings, ceramics, crafts and arts more generally all saw similar growth: in which older, more uniform styles were rejected, and various new artistic genres were allowed to compete and flourish.

Due to the rapid development of the publishing industry, Edo period Japan was quickly introduced to the contemporary painting styles and artistic theories of the late Ming and Early Qing, which became highly prized by Japanese artists. The art of Japanese painting thus attained new heights in this time. Many Japanese intellectuals began diligently imitating what they considered the "ideal" lifestyles of Chinese literati, which in turn led to the birth of the school of "Japanese Literati Painting." Conversely, this period also saw the rise of the Kyoto school of Rimpa. Compared with literati, the affluent merchants who comprised the Rimpa movement's early supporters they focused on the quality of life: and thus Rimpa artists moved away from the literati style and began to feature the lives of regular Japanese people as subject matter. This talk will thus aim to discuss the artistic and cultural influence of traditional Chinese culture on Edo Japanese painting style, using the diverse painting styles of the Edo period as examples.

日本在進入江戶時代(1603-1867)之前已經分別受到了我國唐代和宋元文化的兩次影響,隨著時間的流逝,這些來自中國的文化藝術漸漸融入到日本的本土文化中。到了江戶時代又有一股最新的明末清初的文化思潮影響了日本,而且這個時期日本在德川幕府的統治下持續了將近300年,社會的穩定和經濟的繁榮,促進了文化藝術的飛速發展。因而日本的繪畫、陶瓷、工藝等藝術領域在這個時期均得到了極大的發展,打破了過去的單一形式,新興藝術流派層出不窮,形成了百花齊放、爭奇鬥豔之勢。

江戶時代隨著出版業的迅速發展,中國明末清初的最新繪畫風格與藝術理論很快傳到了日本各地,被日本畫家視為至寶。日本的繪畫藝術也因此提升到了一個新的高度。比如,一些日本的知識分子由於憧憬書本上中國文人的理想境界而刻意模仿他們的生活方式,日本文人畫就是在這樣的文化背景下誕生的。然而誕生在京都的琳派藝術其支持者,大都是富有的商人,相比那些追求理想境界的知識分子,他們更加注重生活的品質與品味,所以琳派的作品往往更多的體現了日本一般民眾的日常生活。此次演講將以日本江戶時代各派的作品為例,探討日本江戶時代繪畫吸收中國文化的過程與傳承方式。